April is the Cruellest Month

scienceyoucanlove:

Helmeted hornbill (Rhinoplax vigil)

The largest hornbill in Asia (5), the helmeted hornbill (Rhinoplax vigil) is named for its bizarre ‘casque’, a protuberance which perches, helmet-like, on the upper half of the red and yellow, chisel-like bill (2). Unlike the casques of other hornbill species, which are typically hollow and extremely light, the casque of the helmeted hornbill is a solid block of an ivory-like substance (5).

The helmeted hornbill has dark brown upperparts and white underparts (2). Its extremely long central tail feathers, which often double the length of the entire bird, are white with dark banding patterns (3), and there are chestnut-brown feathers around the eyes (5).

Both male and female helmeted hornbills have a bare, featherless patch on the neck. This leathery skin is red in males and turquoise in the smaller females (2).

The peculiar call of the helmeted hornbill is described as a series of hollow ‘took ’notes followed by maniacal laughter, which is unique to this species (3).

The helmeted hornbill is thought to be a territorial bird. Small groups of up to 14 non-breeding and immature birds may forage for food within a single area, but adult breeding pairs have their ownterritories (2).

The helmeted hornbill performs incredible displays in flight, in which individuals collide in mid-air, theircasques clashing with a loud ‘clack’. This aerial jousting, which usually takes place between two males, often results in one or both hornbills being flung backwards, before righting themselves again in flight. These collisions are typically observed near fruiting fig trees, suggesting that the birds are fighting over access to their favoured food (5).

The main food of the helmeted hornbill is fruit, with figs being a particular favourite. However, this species also feeds on small animals, including mammals, snakes, and even smaller hornbills. It typically forages high up in the forest canopy, where it can sometimes be seen hanging upside-down, digging under the bark with its heavy beak and casque. Although breeding pairs share a territory, the male and female forage independently (2).

All hornbills are noted for their bizarre nesting habits, in which the female is sealed within a hollow tree toincubate the eggs (2). A nest is created within a natural hollow, high in a tree, and the female is then sealed within the hollow with mud by the male (2) (3). Only a small hole is left, through which the male passes the female regurgitated food, while the female incubates the eggs (2). The helmeted hornbill has been observed to lay eggs in January to March, as well as in May and November (2). When the young have hatched, the female breaks out of the hollow, then reseals the entrance until the young have fledged (3).

read more at the source page

polarbear1986:

There are many misconceptions when it comes to modern American Indians and the way we identify ourselves in society. As a Seminole Indian woman, I’ve had my share of “rain dance” jokes and uncomfortable conversations.

These stereotypes stem from inaccurate portrayals in popular culture that were never properly challenged. They establish a limited perception. Movies, television shows, mascots. There’s poverty porn, media that sensationalizes marginalized communities with exploitative or voyeuristic motives. Even Disney perpetuates these problems.

But Native America is far more complex than what mainstream media and education depict. I can go on for pages about my tribe alone and its colorful history. Though I’m in no position to speak on behalf of all indigenous community, here are a few basics I think everyone should know.

1. We exist today and live contemporary lives.

Being type casted or dismissed is a problem American Indians face daily. Hearing, “Do you live in a teepee?” is like a rite of passage.

We are so marginalized that references to shaman, “Redskins,” and dream catchers are all that certain people think of when they hear “Native American.” We’re represented as artifacts in a museum, a few chapters in a history book. A group of people frozen in time. I’ve had experiences with people who didn’t even know American Indians were still alive!

So I’m here to say yes, we do exist today. We drive cars, tweet about Game of Thrones, listen to Beyoncé. Though some of us may chose to stay in touch with our traditions, Native Americans aren’t “mystical” or “savage” people from the past. We go to college, write books, become doctors, run businesses.

2. There are multiple ways to address Native America.

Native Americans, Natives, American Indians, Indians, Indigenous peoples, First Nations peoples, Aboriginal, Indian Country. The list can go on. It’s ideal to use the name of a specific tribe or nation, like Sicangu Lakota or Comanche. It’s the difference between asking a Japanese person “how’s Japan?” as opposed to “how’s Asia?”

With whichever term you use, be cognizant of your relationship to whom you’re addressing, where you are, etc. Context and respect are everything.

3. We don’t all look the same.

Some Natives are tall, some are short, some are fair-skinned, some are dark. We have varying highness of cheekbones, varying weights, varying hair lengths and hair color.

Native American is not so much a “racial” identity. It’s more of a political one. We share the same relationship to the United States government in that we are indigenous, but are distinct nations from one another across North America.

4. There are more than 560 federally recognized tribes in the U.S.

To be federally recognized means to be legally recognized by the United States Bureau of Indian Affairs. Even still, there are thousands of tribes, bands, nations, and peoples throughout the U.S. that are not recognized on a government or legal level. They self-identify as American Indian.

Tribes are separate entities from the United States, are self-governing individuals with tribal courts and elected leaders. “Domestic Dependent Nations.” Though not entirely sovereign, like a foreign country, American Indian sovereignty continues to be pushed and expanded.

5. And each tribe has its own identity as a nation, independent from one another.

I can’t stress it enough: Natives aren’t a unanimous culture across North America. We don’t all hunt buffalo or wear buckskin. Every tribe has its unique languages, traditions, histories, politics, economies, religions, and overall ways of life.

Of course, there are overlapping practices and characteristics because of complicated histories. Still, each nation remains individual. Southeastern tribes are totally different than Northwestern ones. I can’t speak for totem poles because Seminoles don’t practice that tradition, but my friend from the Shuswap nation can.

There are countless nuances between nations. It can be hard to keep up with, but it’s what makes Indian Country so intriguing and beautiful.

6. Some Natives live on reservations, some don’t.

Reservations are areas of land owned and managed by Native nations. Not every tribe has a reservation. With the Dawes Act in the late 1880s, there are only ~300 reservations in the U.S. today. Reservations vary in size and location. The Navajo nation has territory equivalent to the size of West Virginia.

Then there are Natives who, due to the Indian Relocation Act of 1956, come from families that were encouraged by the government to move off of reservations and into cities to “assimilate.”

7. There are American Indians in the U.S. that don’t speak English.

Once, on a train, I was telling my ex-boyfriend about my great grandmother. I explained how we weren’t that close because of our language barrier: she only spoke Miccosukee, one of the two languages spoken by Seminole people in Florida. He was shocked.

Oral history is a vital part of our history. Though the number is dwindling, there are elders who speak their Native language exclusively. Bilingual individuals are more common. Many nations keep their languages alive, preserving them and teaching them to younger generations.

To remain linguistically sovereign is important. Language allows us to control our own narratives and resist colonial oppression.

8. Land is not just property to American Indians.

The gap between European and indigenous concepts of land is the most fundamental issue Natives face with the U.S. and Canadian governments. For Native communities, land transcends the value of “property” as Locke coined it, and functions spiritually as well as economically.

Indigenous religious beliefs and ways of life are tied to the earth and what it produces. It’s a living entity that is not perceived as something to exert ownership over. Instead, there’s the notion of a respectful relationship with the earth. Give and take. Things like waterways, forests, and buffalo are essential for life and prosperity, and can even hold sacred value.

This is why the loss and destruction of Native land (North America) is so devastating. Confining nations to allotted areas and destroying the environment disturbs this essence of existence and identity.

9. A genocide was enacted upon Native America.

Did you know that Adolf Hitler was inspired by the indigenous genocide in North America when he created concentration camps? Manifest Destiny and the Third Reich are creepily synonymous.

80-90% of the American Indian population was killed between Columbian contact and today. The Trail of Tears, San Creek Massacre, Wounded Knee Massacre, the Camp Grant Massacre, the list goes on.

When the years of Indian wars came to an end, a new kind of violence emerged. In the late 19th and early 20th century, the Bureau of Indian Affairs founded American Indian boarding schools. For decades, the establishments literally kidnapped children from their homes and families. The children were physically, sexually, and mentally abused in order to “kill the Indian and save the man.” They were coerced into becoming English-speaking servants and laborers.

Genocide can be physical or cultural. Today, remnants of these alarmingly recent tragedies surface in the forms of racism, poverty, drug abuse, and historical trauma. Colonialism is an ongoing system, not an isolated event.

10. Native America is changing the world.

It’s empowering to think that every indigenous person living today is descendent of fierce survivors. And we’re not only surviving, we are making strides.

There’s Winona LaDuke, Anishinaabe activist, environmentalist, economist, and author of three books. She’s even run as Vice President alongside candidate Ralph Nader on the Green Party ticket. Adrienne Keene’s honest blog Native Appropriations has amassed over 50k followers on Facebook, and grabbed the attention of companies such as Paul Frank for their problematic behavior. There are also musicians like A Tribe Called Red, hailing from the Cayuga Six Nations and Nissiping Ojibwe Nation, representing Native expression.

Though there are still huge issues to overcome before Indian Country can rest, Indigenous Resistance is alive and well. With the advantage of the Internet and greater opportunities for education, each generation is getting louder and louder. We are beginning to portray ourselves in the media on our own terms.

In the famous words of Native movie Smoke Signals, “It’s a good day to be indigenous.” 

ABOUT BRAUDIE

b. 1993

Currently in New York City, from Fort lauderdale, FL. [She] take[s] photos and you can follow [her] Twitter.

dduane:

How many Peeps can a 50-calibre bullet pass through?

Photographer Bobby-Jo Clow [website | facebook] found herself face-to-face with a cheetah cub who approached her Landrover while on safari at the Serengeti National Park in Tanzania. She documented the curious cat’s looks of wonder and trepidation at the vehicle and its passengers.

[article | mymodernmet]

"I am an Inuit seal meat eater, and my fur is ethical," wrote Alethea Arnaquq-Baril, bundled in a sealskin coat, pants and boots. She also wrote a letter to DeGeneres and posted it online.

Samsung vowed to donate $1 for every retweet of DeGeneres’ celebrity-packed Oscars selfie to a charity of her choice. She raised $1.5 million for the Humane Society of the United States, which campaigns annually against Canada’s seal hunt.

The Ellen DeGeneres Show’s website calls the seal hunt “one of the most atrocious and inhumane acts against animals allowed by any government.”

The Inuit have long defended the hunt as a sustainable practice, deeply rooted in Inuit culture, which helps feed people in a region plagued by hunger.

"The meat feeds families, which is important to an area where many households have identified that they face issues of food insecurity," said Sandi Vincent, who posted her own sealfie Thursday.

The pelts also come in handy in the cold northern climate and provide a needed source of income, she said. She also countered the idea of the hunt as “inhumane.”

"In Inuit culture, it is believed seals and other animals have souls and offer themselves to you. Humanely and with gratitude we accepted this gift," she said, reminiscing about catching her first seal at age 15.

Inuit tweet ‘sealfies’ to protest Ellen’s Oscars selfie | Canada | News | Toronto Sun (via oswaldofguadalupe)

Seal hunting in the arctic is a traditional, sustainable lifestyle that has been recorded to go back several thousand years. Basically what is being attempted here is as if someone went to the average North American and said: “You can no longer buy beef from the store, you have to buy ostrich meat. Oh, and by the way it’s $20/lb (kg - doesn’t matter; expensive). Good luck affording that.”

(via oosik)

theolduvaigorge:

Archaeo-Scope: Disabled Access to Archaeology?

Welcome to Archaeo-Scope. In this series we take an archaeological perspective on modern culture; asking questions about current trends and observations from around the world. Today, I have a question about access for ALL to archaeological sites.”

(Source: Archaeosoup)

relatableteenblogger:

in case you were having a bad day, here’s a picture of Yo-Yo Ma, the famous cellist, on the floor of a bathroom with a wombat

relatableteenblogger:

in case you were having a bad day, here’s a picture of Yo-Yo Ma, the famous cellist, on the floor of a bathroom with a wombat

starkinglyhandsome:

cloudyobsession:

yourlocalpsychopath:

randomthingieshere:

abbysrwk:

paradoxsocks:

merlinsbearditsthedoctor:

gallifreyanprincess:

merlinsbearditsthedoctor:

codemilkygreen:

pizzaforpresident:

why are people even questioning obesity in america

i’m game

why is your tea liquidised?

….. Where exactly do you live that the tea isn’t liquid?!?

ENGLAND. WHERE IT IS IN A BAG AND YOU MAKE IT YOURSELF.

like what do you do with already liquid tea? Microwave it?

No it’s sweet tea you drink it cold

WHO DRINKS COLD TEA???

HAVE YOU NEVER HAD ICED/SWEET TEA BEFORE?!?

so i reblogged this from a british person and i’ve been laughing at their tags for 600 years





England, you stole tea from China.  You’ve had it a mere 4 centuries compared to their 30+.  Don’t play like you’re some kind of authority.

[skeletons ooh-ing]

starkinglyhandsome:

cloudyobsession:

yourlocalpsychopath:

randomthingieshere:

abbysrwk:

paradoxsocks:

merlinsbearditsthedoctor:

gallifreyanprincess:

merlinsbearditsthedoctor:

codemilkygreen:

pizzaforpresident:

why are people even questioning obesity in america

i’m game

why is your tea liquidised?

….. Where exactly do you live that the tea isn’t liquid?!?

ENGLAND. WHERE IT IS IN A BAG AND YOU MAKE IT YOURSELF.

image

like what do you do with already liquid tea? Microwave it?

No it’s sweet tea you drink it cold

WHO DRINKS COLD TEA???

HAVE YOU NEVER HAD ICED/SWEET TEA BEFORE?!?

so i reblogged this from a british person and i’ve been laughing at their tags for 600 years

image

image

image

image

England, you stole tea from China.  You’ve had it a mere 4 centuries compared to their 30+.  Don’t play like you’re some kind of authority.

[skeletons ooh-ing]

perpetualartistsblock:

Request (sorta) by karamundy: something picturing non-dinosaurs that are often wrongly considered dinosaurs.
There’s probably other stuff I could’ve put in, but that’s basically everything I could think of.
Fun fact: this chart also doubles as a chart depicting what I can and cannot draw well.

perpetualartistsblock:

Request (sorta) by karamundy: something picturing non-dinosaurs that are often wrongly considered dinosaurs.

There’s probably other stuff I could’ve put in, but that’s basically everything I could think of.

Fun fact: this chart also doubles as a chart depicting what I can and cannot draw well.